Great thread! Thanks for all the useful information. I was able to get this to work this morning.
One thing I noticed that may help others. After updating, restarting, repairing and setting all the options I couldn't get text messages to show up in the filter or in idrive when the phone received one. When I went into the office from the main menu it went straight into messages, showing the email filter with all of the google poi that I had sent myself. If I tried changing the filter, the text messages option would not show up. I then pushed left on the idrive control knob to get to the office main, scrolled up and selected current office. This opened the screen that shows the total unread messages, as seen on picture #1 of the OP. Then, I selected that and voila, the list of available messages refreshed and I can now see the text messages option on the screen and the text messages show up in idrive when the phone receives them.
So if anyone is having some issues, try to back out of office and refresh it as I described above. Hope this helps!